1) Intergroup biases in judgments, decision-making and memory

A central theme in this research is the importance of social groups in perceptions, judgments, decision-making, and memory. In a large set of experimental studies, we have investigated how the ethnicity, gender, and age of actors and observers in legal and medical settings influence people's perceptions and memories. The role of social groups is also emphasized in our research on decision-making. For example, in a series of studies, we have examined how the in-group/out-group status of decision-makers in large group settings affects individual group member's later representation of the decision information and their attitudes toward fellow group members. In an ongoing project conducted in collaboration with Professor Sverker Sikström (Lund University), we approach the issue of group membership by focusing on the role of language in the creation of and maintenance of prejudice.

2) Genotype, situation and aggression

In yet another ongoing project, we address questions associated with the interaction between an individual's genotype and group belonging. Recent research suggests that genotype and environmental factors interact to predict violent and antisocial behaviour in adolescents. The current project aims at delineating the psychological mechanisms that mediate such gene-environment interactions and to further clarify the direct causal relations involved. In this project, we investigate how being accepted or rejected by a social group in interaction with an individual's genotype influence the individual's cognitive processing and aggressive behavior.

3) Stress, memory, hormones, and cognition

A further focus is the association between stress and cognitive ability. This interest has resulted in a set of publications on children's memories of stressful medical procedures, and also to a collaboration with a group of endocrinologists on the role of early exposure to stress hormones. In this collaboration, we have examined how treatment of fetuses at risk for virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) with synthetic glucocorticoids, is related to the individual's later cognitive ability, social anxiety, and gender-role behavior.

4) Communication and perception of eyewitness accuracy cues

A common source of inaccurate memory is genuinely reported, but erroneous event descriptions. The current project focuses on two major questions:

  • Are there qualitative differences between accurate vs. inaccurate genuine memory reports?
  • If so, can people use these differences to discriminate between other's accurate vs. inaccurate memories?


Gustafsson-Sendén, M., Lindholm, T., & Sikström, S. (in press). Selection bias as reflected by choice of words: The evaluations of "I" and "We" differ between communication contexts, but "They" are always worse. Journal of Language and Social Psychology.

Kusterer, H. L., Lindholm, T., & Montgomery, H. (2013). Gender typing in stereotypes and evaluations of actual managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 561-579.

Lovén, J., Rehnman, J., Wiens, S., Lindholm, T., Peira, N., & Herlitz, A. (2012). Who are you looking at? The influence of gender on visual attention and memory for own- and other-race faces. Memory, 20, 321-331.

Hirvikoski, T., Lindholm, T., Lajic, S., & Nordenström, A. (2011). Gender role behaviour in prenatally dexamethasone treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Acta Paediatrica, 100, 112-119.

Bäck, E., Esaiasson, P., Gilljam, M., & Lindholm, T. (2011). Post-decision consolidation in large group decision-making. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 320-328.

Hirvikoski, T., Olsson, E.M.G., Nordenström, A., Lindholm, T., Nordström, A-L., & Lajic, S, & (2011). Deficient cardiovascular stress reactivity predicts poor executive functions in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Journal of Experimental and Clinical Neuropsychology, 33, 63 - 73.

Lindholm, T., & Yourstone, J. (2010). Ethnicity- and gender biases in the courtroom: International and Nordic findings. In P.-A. Granhag (Ed.) Forensic Psychology in context: Nordic and International approaches (pp. 228-246). Devon, United Kingdom: Willan Publishing.

Gilljam. M., Esaiasson, P., & Lindholm, T. (2010). Opening up the black box of pupil influence: An experimental comparison between decisions made by elected pupil councils, by pupils in referenda, and by the teaching staff. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 22, 73-88.

Bäck, E., Esaiasson, P., Gilljam, M., & Lindholm, T. (2010). Biased attributions regarding the origins of preferences in a group decision situation. European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 270-281.

Yourstone, J., Fazel, S., Lindholm, T., & Grann, M. (2009). Gender differences in diagnoses of mentally disordered offenders. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 8, 172-177.

Lindholm, T., Sjöberg, R. L., Pedroletti, C., Bohman, A., Sund, A., & Lindblad, F. (2009). Infants' and toddlers' remembering and forgetting of a stressful medical procedure. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 205-216.

Sjöberg, R. L., & Lindholm, T. (2009). Återuppväckande av minnen saknar vetenskapligt stöd som behandling. Läkartidningen, 106, 226-227.

Hirvikoski, T., Lindholm, T., Nordenström, A., Nordström, A.-L.., & Lajic, S. (2009). High self-perceived stress and many stressors, but normal diurnal cortisol rhythm, in adults with ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Hormones and Behavior, 55, 418-424.

Svenson, O., Salo, I., & Lindholm, T. (2009). Post decision consolidation and distortion of facts. Judgment and Decision Making, 4, 397-407.

Sjöberg, R. L., & Lindholm, T. (2009). Children's autobiographical reports about sexual abuse: A narrative review of the research literature. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 63, 435-442.

Lindholm, T. (2008). Validity in judgments of high- and low- accurate witnesses of own and other ethnic groups. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13, 107-120.

Lindholm, T. (2008). Who can judge the accuracy of eyewitness statements? A comparison of professionals and lay-persons. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 1301-1314.

Yourstone, J., Lindholm, T., Grann, M., & Svenson, O. (2008). Evidence of gender bias in legal insanity evaluations: A case vignette study of clinicians, judges, and students. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 62, 273-278.

Yourstone, J., Lindholm, T., & Kristiansson, M. (2008). Women who kill: A comparison of the psychosocial background of female and male perpetrators convicted of lethal violence in Sweden between 1995-2001. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31, 374-383.

Öjmyr-Joelsson, M., Nisell, M., Christensson, K., Frenckner, B., & Lindholm, T. (2008). High and intermediate imperforate anus: Remembering and talking about medical treatment in early age. Pediatric Surgery International, 24, 1009-1015.

Hirvikoski, T., Nordenström, A., Lindholm, T., Lindblad, F., Ritzén, M., Wedell, A., & Lajic, S. (2008). Long-term follow-up of prenatally treated children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Does Dexamethasone cause behavioural problems or psychopathology? European Journal of Endocrinology, 159, 309-316.

Hirvikoski, T., Nordenström, A., Lindholm, T., Lindblad, F., Ritzén, M., Wedell, A., Lajic, S. (2007). Prenatal Dexametasone treatment of children at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia affects cognitive functions. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 542-548.

Eriksson, K., & Lindholm, T. (2007). Making gender matter: The role of gender-based expectancies and gender identification on women's and men's math performance in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48, 329-338.

Lindholm, T., & Bergvall, S. (2006). Diskriminering i vittnessammanhang: Resultat från ett social-kognitivt forskningspojekt. I J.Sarnecki (Red.) Är rättvisan rättvis? Tio perspektiv på diskriminering av etniska och religiösa minoriteter inom rättssystemet. Justitiedepartementet, Utredningen om makt, integration och strukturell diskriminering, SOU 2006:30.

Lindholm, T. (2006). Lika vittnen vittna bäst. Invandrare och minoriteter, 3, 33-35.

Lindholm, T. (2005). Own-age biases in verbal person memory. Memory, 13, 21-30.

Lindholm, T. (2005). Group-based biases and validity in eyewitness credibility judgments: Examining effects of witness ethnicity and presentation modality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1474-1501.

Lindholm, T. (2005). Fördomar och diskriminering: Gamla problem i ny skepnad. Krönika på Stockholms polisförbunds hemsida. www.blaljus.nu

Lindholm, T. (2005). Fördomar och diskriminering ur ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv: Klassiska problem i modern skepnad. I C. Diesen, C. Lernestedt, T. Lindholm, & T. Petterson (Red.), Likhet inför lagen? Borås: Natur och Kultur.

Sjöberg, R. L., & Lindholm, T. (2005). A systematic review of age-related errors in children's memories for voiding cysto-urethrograms (VCUG). European Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14, 104-105.

Lindholm, T. (2004). Etniska fördomar i vittnessituationer. Tidsskrift for Strafferett, 3, 316-329.

Sjöberg, R. L., & Lindholm, T. (2003). Gender biases in decisions on euthanasia among Swedish jurors. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 57, 469-471.

Sjöberg, R. L., & Lindholm, T. (2003). Decision-making and euthanasia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 171-173.

Lindholm, T. (1999). Group membership and eyewitness testimony. Department of Psychology, Stockholm University. Edsbruk: Akademitryck. (Doktorsavhandling).

Lindholm, T. (1998). Vem pekar ut den skyldige? En fråga för vittnespsykologin. Victor, 1.

Christianson, S.-Å., & Lindholm, T. (1998). The fate of traumatic memories in childhood and adulthood. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 761-780.

Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S.-Å. (1998). Gender effects in eyewitness accounts of a violent crime. Psychology, Crime & Law, 4, 323-329.

Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S.-Å. (1998). Intergroup biases and eyewitness testimony. Journal of Social Psychology, 138:6, 710-723.

Lindholm, T., Christianson, S.-Å., & Karlsson, I. (1997). Police officers and civilians as witnesses: Intergroup biases and memory performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, 431-444.

Juslin, P., Lindholm, T., & Christianson, S.-Å. (1996). Vittneskonfrontationer. I S.-Å. Christianson (Red.) Rättspsykologi. Borås: Natur och Kultur.

Christianson, S.-Å., & Lindholm, T. (1995). L'impact du stress sur la memoire des temoins oculaires. Psychologie Francaise, 40(3), 223-233.